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A concept that describes the global network of physical devices equipped with integrated technology to communicate and sense or interact with each other, with other systems or with the external environment. These devices, ranging from household appliances and wearables to vehicles and urban structures, are constantly connected to the internet.

This connectivity enables both the collection and transmission of real-time data and the ability to receive instructions and act on them. IoT devices often have automation and remote control capabilities, and some can even adapt and respond to patterns through machine learning. While IoT promises significant transformations in a number of fields, it also poses challenges in areas such as security and privacy.