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Multi-factor authentication (MFA) is a verification method that requires users to present two or more proofs of identity to access an account or system.

These factors typically fall into three categories: something the user knows (such as a password), something the user has (such as a smart card or token), and something inherent to the user (such as a fingerprint or facial recognition). By requiring multiple forms of verification, MFA significantly increases security, as an attacker would need to compromise more than one factor to gain unauthorized access.

MFA has become standard practice, especially in applications and services that handle sensitive information, as it offers an additional layer of protection beyond traditional passwords, which can be vulnerable to theft or brute force attacks.