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Geographic Information Systems (GIS) are technological tools that combine cartography with databases to capture, store, manipulate, analyze and present geospatial data. GIS is essential in the modern world, and is particularly relevant to urban planning and management.

A GIS provides a detailed and contextualized view of the geographic space of a city and its interactions. This is possible thanks to the ability to display multiple layers of information on the same map. For example, a GIS could display layers of data about demographics, infrastructure, topography, environment, etc. This allows urban planners and other professionals to analyze how these factors interact with each other.

This multifaceted capacity is vital for making informed decisions about urban development. For example, a GIS could be used to determine where to place a new subway line or how to protect vulnerable areas from extreme weather events.

As cities grow and develop, the need for tools that can provide complex and detailed spatial analyzes becomes even more imperative.