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Cryptography is the science and art of protecting information through techniques that transform readable messages (plain text) into encrypted messages (cipher text) to hide their real content.

Historically, cryptography has been essential in protecting military, government, and commercial communications, but in the digital age, its importance has grown exponentially, extending to the protection of personal data, financial transactions, and more.

To decrypt encrypted content back into clear text, a key is required that only the legitimate sender and receiver know. As cryptographic algorithms and methods evolve, so do attempts to break them, resulting in a constant arms race between cryptographers and attackers.