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Interoperability is the ability of different systems, applications, devices and protocols to share information and collaborate with each other. This capability is essential to the effective operation of smart cities, as it enables urban systems to connect and work together to improve the quality of life for citizens.

In a smart city, the technological infrastructure is composed of a wide range of systems, from transportation and energy systems to public health and safety systems. All these systems must be able to share information with each other so that decision-makers can make informed decisions and citizens can enjoy personalized services tailored to their needs.

Interoperability can be achieved through a variety of methods, such as standardizing communication protocols, creating common interfaces, and implementing middleware technologies. Promoting interoperability is an ongoing effort, as technological systems are constantly evolving.